"Although most US states have legal restrictions on the sale and possession of syringes, pharmaceutical practice guidelines often allow pharmacists discretion in syringe sales decisions; this may lead to wide variation in syringe sales by individual pharmacists and to discrimination based on gender, age, race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. Individual-level factors associated with pharmacists' relative willingness to sell syringes include familiarity with customers; concerns about deception, disease transmission, improperly discarded syringes, and staff and customer safety; business concerns, including fear of theft and harassment of other customers by IDU patrons; and fear of increased drug use because of easier syringe access."


Diebert, Ryan J., MPH, Goldbaum, Gary, MD, MPH, Parker, Theodore R., MPH, Hagan, Holly, PhD, Marks, Robert, MEd, Hanrahan, Michael, BA, and Thiede, Hanne, DVM, MPH, "Increased Access to Unrestricted Pharmacy Sales of Syringe in Seattle-King County, Washington: Structural and Individual-Level Changes, 1996 Versus 2003," American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 96, No. 8, Aug. 2006, p. 1347.