"Community pharmacies are essential healthcare destinations that serve as an optimal resource for addressing non-urgent inquiries, such as safe injecting practices, management of adverse drug reactions, and medication provision, thus reducing the burden on general practitioners (GPs) [1, 2]. Pharmacists also have a role in addressing social determinants of health and promoting health equity, including the support of primary prevention strategies such as harm reduction interventions [3], for example through needle and syringe programs (NSPs) [4, 5]. In addition to offering advice and facilitating HIV/Hepatitis testing, pharmacists serve as a vital referral mechanism to various social, medical, and treatment services [6]. The experiences of pharmacists in this context have demonstrated predominantly positive outcomes associated with NSP provision [7, 8]. However, consumer attitudes to harm reduction service provision have been mixed [9], largely as a result of perceived systemic barriers for consumers which are often evident at sites of delivery [10, 11]. McVeigh et al. underscored the necessity for enhancing pharmacists' harm reduction training and implementing appropriate strategies to raise awareness of the needs of substance consumers, cater to the diverse needs of individuals who inject drugs, foster trusting relationships, and facilitate engagement within a confidential service setting [12]."


Piatkowski T, Benn S, Ayurzana L, King M, McMillan S, Hattingh L. Exploring the role of community pharmacies as a harm reduction environment for anabolic-androgenic steroid consumers: triangulating the perspectives of consumers and pharmacists. Harm Reduct J. 2024;21(1):59. Published 2024 Mar 13. doi:10.1186/s12954-024-00972-5