"NPSfinder® identified 35 molecules (out of the total of 4,204) that were described by psychonauts as having cognitive enhancing effects, such as improved memory, alertness, attention, and concentration. A further 107 molecules were previously described as CE (79), although psychonauts did not explicitly describe them as CE. Since psychonauts experiment with novel substances in order to intentionally experience altered states of consciousness, it is to be expected that their interest also extends to the world of CEs. Among the CEs that they have been discussing online, there are mostly molecules that are known to have nootropic properties, are not illegal, and are likely to be easily available on the market (such as racetam compounds, modafinil and its derivatives, methylphenidate and its derivatives and food supplements). Our results showed that NPSfinder® could be employed as an Early Warning System tool to help clinicians with keeping their knowledge up-to-date with the growing numbers and types of nootropics in the increasingly difficult-to-follow online market."


Napoletano F, Schifano F, Corkery JM, et al. The Psychonauts' World of Cognitive Enhancers. Front Psychiatry. 2020;11:546796. Published 2020 Sep 11. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.546796