"Human growth hormone (HGH) is a hormone naturally produced by the pituitary gland and plays a crucial role in stimulating growth, cell reproduction, and regeneration in humans. It is important in childhood for normal growth and development, and in adulthood, it helps to maintain muscle mass and bone density and regulate metabolism. HGH also significantly affects the immune system, cognitive function, and mood [14]. HGH is a performance-enhancing substance used in bodybuilding to increase muscle mass, reduce body fat, and improve athletic performance. The use of HGH in bodybuilding is often combined with other substances, such as anabolic steroids, to achieve greater results [15]. However, using HGH in bodybuilding is associated with various health risks. One of the most significant risks is the development of diabetes, as HGH use can cause insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. Other side effects of HGH use include joint pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and an increased risk of heart disease and stroke [10,12,15].

"Furthermore, studies have shown that long-term HGH use may increase cancer risk, particularly in the digestive system, such as colon, pancreas, and stomach cancer. This risk is likely due to the growth-promoting effects of HGH, which may stimulate the growth of cancerous cells [1,6,15]. It is important to note that using HGH in bodybuilding is illegal without a prescription and is classified as a controlled substance in many countries. The misuse of HGH can result in serious health consequences, and it is important to raise awareness about the risks associated with its use in bodybuilding. Healthcare professionals should also be vigilant about using HGH and other performance-enhancing substances in their patients and work towards preventing and treating the associated health issues [6,8]."


Mantri S, Agarwal S, Jaiswal A, Yelne S, Prasad R, Wanjari MB. Bodybuilding: A Comprehensive Review of Performance-Enhancing Substance Use and Public Health Implications. Cureus. 2023 Jul 9;15(7):e41600. doi: 10.7759/cureus.41600. PMID: 37559855; PMCID: PMC10409494.