"The data available have limitations in respect to quality and coverage, however, the information available suggests that heroin was only present in the majority of overdose deaths in a relatively small number of EU countries. A significant share of overdose deaths was reported by Austria (67%), Italy (56%), Ireland (46% in 2017), Poland (44% in 2016) and Romania (43%). In 7 other European countries, heroin was found in approximately a quarter to a third of reported overdose deaths: Portugal (37%), Slovenia (33%), Denmark (36%), France (33% in 2020), Türkiye (32%), Spain (28% in 2020) and Norway (23%). In 2021, in the north of Europe, less than 1 in 6 overdose deaths in Finland, Sweden and in the Baltic countries was reported to involve heroin."


European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2023), European Drug Report 2023: Trends and Developments, last accessed July 9, 2023.