"Investment in NSPs (2000-2009) has resulted in: " 

• An estimated 32,050 HIV infections and 96,667 HCV infections averted; " 

• Substantial healthcare cost savings to government related to HCV and HIV; " 

• Substantial gains in Disability Adjusted Life years. "For every dollar currently spent on the activities of NSP, more than four dollars will be returned (in addition to the investment; i.e., five times the investment) and approximately 0.2 days of disability-adjusted life gained. Over a longer time horizon there is even greater return."


National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research (2009). Return on investment 2: Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of needle and syringe programs in Australia 2009. The University of New South Wales, Sydney, p. 9.