"Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Together, these 18 countries accounted for over 87% of TB mortality in the WHO Europe region with the highest in Turkmenistan (10.4 deaths per 100,000), followed by Azerbaijan (10.1) and Ukraine (8.4). In addition, an estimated 20% to 25% of TB cases in Eurasia go undetected.[19]

"The largest proportion of new and relapse cases (78,258, or 34.4%) come from Russia. The countries with the absolute highest number of TB cases over 10,000 are Russia (78,258), Ukraine (36,000), Uzbekistan (23,000), Romania (13,000) and Kazakhstan (12,000). There were an estimated 30,000 HIV-positive TB cases, with Russia (53%) and Ukraine (27%) contributing to the highest burden of coinfection. The TB notification rate exceeds 1,000 cases per 100,000 prison detainees in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. The highest TB-related risks in prison are calculated to be in Slovakia (40.7), followed by Czechia (24.9), Ukraine (23.8), Russia (23.5) and Azerbaijan (22.1). Russia accounted for almost half of the deaths in the WHO EU Region in absolute numbers. Although few countries report TB in people who inject drugs, higher rates of notification (new cases) among this group supports evidence that people who use drugs are at higher risk of TB.[20]

"OAT and drug treatment, even if available in the country, are largely unavailable in TB treatment facilities (for example Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine) and facilities are often restricted from prescribing controlled substances.[21] Consequently, people who use drugs often come into contact with the health system at late stages of the disease and are forced to interrupt treatment which, in turn, leads to high prevalence of multidrug-resistant TB.[1]"


Harm Reduction International (2020). Global State of Harm Reduction 2020. London: Harm Reduction International.