"Mean treatment results demonstrated in the present study obscure variations at the individual patient level. Some older patients with chronic pain may receive substantial benefit through psychological therapy, while others may not benefit. There is no evidence that the beneficial results identified at the completion of treatment persisted up to 6 months for outcomes other than pain reduction. There were too few studies reporting long-term outcomes to determine completely whether this finding was due to decreased power or to a tapering of treatment benefits over time.

"The observed benefits were strongest when delivered using group-based approaches. Potential mechanisms that could account for this finding include access to peer support, social facilitation of target behaviors, and public commitment to therapy goals.52 No other results of participant, intervention, or study characteristics were found. Treatment benefits were equally likely to occur in older men and women irrespective of age and duration of chronic pain."


Niknejad B, Bolier R, Henderson CR, et al. Association Between Psychological Interventions and Chronic Pain Outcomes in Older AdultsA Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. Published online May 07, 2018. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.0756