"The prevalence of drugs detected in cases was higher than in controls across the drug categories (Table 3). Marijuana, narcotics, stimulants, and depressants were each associated with a significantly increased risk of fatal crash involvement, with estimated odds ratios ranging from 1.83 for marijuana to 4.83 for depressants (Table 3). Polydrug use, defined as use of two or more non-alcohol drugs, was associated with a 3.4-fold increased risk of fatal crash involvement (Table 3).

"About one-fifth (20.5%) of the cases tested positive for alcohol and one or more drugs, compared with 2.2% of the controls. Relative to drivers who tested positive for neither alcohol nor drugs, the estimated odds of fatal crash involvement increased over 13 folds for those who were alcohol-positive but drug-negative, more than two folds for those who were alcohol-negative but drug-positive, and 23 folds for those who were positive for both alcohol and drugs (Table 4)."


Guohua Li, Joanne E. Brady, and Qixuan Chen. Drug use and fatal motor vehicle crashes: A case-control study. Accident Analysis and Prevention 60 (2013) 205–210. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.09.001.