"Our results on the cost-effectiveness of diacetylmorphine are consistent with those of an economic analysis based on data from two Dutch heroin-assisted treatment trials,21 despite differences in the design of the Dutch trials and the North American Opiate Medication Initiative, and the time horizon and analytic design of the economic analyses.

"The Dutch trials compared methadone maintenance treatment with a combination of methadone and diacetylmorphine (prescribed concurrently), which changed the profiles of health utility and health resource use. Furthermore, participants in the Dutch trials were recruited from methadone maintenance programs, whereas participants in the North American Opiate Medication Initiative had to have been out of treatment for at least six months before trial entry. We considered a range of time horizons, using external parameters where necessary to extrapolate results to longer time horizons. The other economic analysis used trial data exclusively and focused only on a 12-month study period. The consistency in results between our analysis and the analysis of the Dutch trials appears to be due primarily to the advantages diacetylmorphine provides in retaining individuals in treatment.

"We believe a lifetime horizon is the most appropriate period for evaluating treatments of chronic, recurrent diseases such as opioid dependence, because treatment is available indefinitely in practice and will have a long-term impact. The key outcomes, such as progressing to a drug-free state or death, would likely not be realized within the 12-month period of the North American Opiate Medication Initiative."


Bohdan Nosyk PhD., et al., "Cost-effectiveness of diacetylmorphine versus methadone for chronic opioid dependence refractory to treatment," Canadian Medical Association Journal, April 3, 2012, 184(6):E317-E328.