"Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan comprise the central Asian sub-region, home to nearly 60 million ethnically heterogeneous people, distributed across a geographic area of nearly 4 million km2 (table 1).1–5 These five countries are classified as transitional economies by the World Bank, with Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan having gross national incomes of less than US$650 per head, less than 20% of their pre-independence levels.6"


Claire Thorne, et al., "Central Asia: Hotspot in the Worldwide HIV Epidemic," The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2010 Jul;10(7):479-88. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(10)70118-3