"In both 2018 and 2020, about 3% of U.S. residents experienced the threat or use of force during their most recent police-initiated contact or contact related to a traffic accident (table 9). The threat or use of force was more commonly experienced by those who were male (4%) than female (1%) in both years. It was also more commonly experienced by persons who were black (5% in 2018 and 6% in 2020) or Hispanic (5% in 2018 and 3% in 2020) than persons who were white (2% in both years). Persons ages 16 to 24 (4%) were twice as likely as those age 45 or older (2%) to report the threat or use of force in 2018 and 2020.

"In 2020, about 31% of residents who were most recently involved in a police-initiated or traffic accident-related contact perceived police's threat or use of force as necessary, while 46% saw it as excessive. These percentages were not statistically different from 2018."


Susannah N. Tapp, PhD, and Elizabeth J. Davis. Contacts Between Police and the Public, 2020. NCJ304527 US Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. November 2022.